10 Wrzesień 2021
Agreement On Agriculture Adalah
Autor: Anna Pilsniak. Kategorie: Bez kategorii .
The CAP is also affected by agricultural concessions granted to a large number of countries under several multilateral and bilateral agreements, as well as unilateral derogations granted under the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP). These preferential agreements explain the high level of EU agricultural imports from developing countries (3.2.10, Table VI). These agreements include a degree of flexibility in implementation by both developing countries, WTO members (special and differential treatment) and least developed countries (LDCs) and net food-importing developing countries (specific provisions). The deal has been criticized by civil society groups for reducing tariff protection for smallholder farmers, an important source of income in developing countries, while allowing rich countries to continue subsidizing domestic agriculture. According to the Mid-Term Review Agreement, according to which direct or indirect aid measures to promote agricultural and rural development are an integral part of the development programmes of developing countries, investment aid which is generally available to agriculture in developing countries and aid for the use of agriculture which are generally low-income or low-resource producers in developing countries Development: Developing countries are exempt from educational requirements that would otherwise apply to measures such as.B. National assistance to producers in developing countries to promote the diversification of illicit drug crops. National aid which satisfies the criteria of this paragraph shall not be included in the calculation of a Member`s total current amS amount. The 2003 CAP reform, which decoupled most of the existing direct aid, and the subsequent sectoral reforms resulted in the postponement of most of the aid under the yellow and blue boxes in the green box (€61.6 billion for the period 2016-2017, see table below). Aid granted under the „Amber Box” (AMS or Aggregate Measurement of Support) decreased sharply, from EUR 81 billion at the beginning of the contractual period to EUR 6.9 billion over the period 2016-2017, even with successive waves of enlargement. The European Union thus obtains the commitments made in Marrakesh (€72.38 billion).
For the AMS. In addition, the „Blue Box” reached €4.6 billion during the same registration period. The 1958 Haberler Report stressed the importance of minimising the impact of agricultural subsidies on competitiveness and recommended replacing price support with additional non-production direct payments and anticipated the debate on green box subsidies. But it is only recently that this change has become at the heart of the reform of the global agricultural system.  Until the 1980s, public payments to agricultural producers in developed countries had resulted in large crop surpluses, dumped on the world market through export subsidies and lowering food prices. The tax burden related to safeguard measures has increased, both due to lower revenues from import duties and higher domestic expenditures. Meanwhile, the global economy had entered a cycle of recession and the perception that open markets could improve economic conditions led to calls for a new round of multilateral trade negotiations.  The round would open markets for high-tech services and goods and, ultimately, lead to much-needed efficiencies. To engage developing countries, many of which were „applicants” for new international disciplines, agriculture, textiles and clothing were added to the big deal.
 The GATT 1947 initially applied to agriculture but was incomplete, and the signatory States (or „Contracting Parties”) excluded this sector from the scope of the principles set out in the General Agreement. During the period 1947-1994, members were allowed to benefit from export subsidies on primary agricultural products and, under certain conditions, to impose import restrictions, so that the main agricultural raw materials faced barriers to trade in unusual proportions in other product sectors. . . .